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Cytokine Profiles and Eosinophil Activation in Sensitized and Nonsensitized Cases of Virus-Induced Acute Exacerbations of Childhood Wheezing/Asthma.
Sunday, March 6, 2016
South Exhibit Hall H (Convention Center)
Masahiko Kato, MD, PhD FAAAAI, Kazuo Suzuki, MD, Yoshiyuki Yamada, MD, PhD, Kenichi Maruyama, MD, PhD, Hiroyuki Mochizuki, MD, PhD
Rationale: Viral infections and sensitization to aeroallergens are major factors in the exacerbation of asthma and its development during early childhood. However, the cytokine profiles and eosinophil activation status linked to the association between viral infections and sensitization to aeroallergens are incompletely understood. Here we investigated respiratory viruses, serum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), and various cytokines/chemokines in acute exacerbation of childhood wheezing/asthma with or without aeroallergen sensitization.

Methods: We analyzed peripheral eosinophil counts, serum ECP, and 27 cytokines/chemokines in 71 virus-induced acute wheezing/asthma cases with or without aeroallergen sensitization. Wheezing/asthma due to sensitization was defined by a positive reaction to at least one aeroallergen in serum specific IgE antibody tests. Virus detection was performed using antigen detection kits and/or RT-PCR, followed by direct DNA sequencing analysis. Serum cytokines/chemokines were measured using a multi-cytokine detection system.

Results: The two major viruses detected, rhinovirus and respiratory syncytial (RS) virus, did not differ significantly between sensitized and nonsensitized cases of acute exacerbations of wheezing/asthma. Peripheral eosinophil counts and serum ECP and IL-5 levels were significantly elevated in sensitized cases compared with nonsensitized cases. Conversely, among the 27 cytokines/chemokines, serum IP-10 values were significantly higher in nonsensitized cases. An inverse correlation between serum IP-10 and IL-5 production was identified in virus-induced acute exacerbations of childhood wheezing/asthma but not in controls.

Conclusions: Cytokine profiles and eosinophil activation status might be different between sensitized and nonsensitized cases of virus-induced acute exacerbations of wheezing/asthma. IP-10 is a biomarker for these virus-induced acute exacerbations, specifically in nonsensitized cases.