Impact of Maternal Oral Contraceptive Pills on Wheeze and Allergic Outcomes in 5-Year-Olds: A Prospective Birth Cohort Study in Japan.
Saturday, March 5, 2016
South Exhibit Hall H (Convention Center)
Kiwako Yamamoto-Hanada, MD, Limin Yang, Tetsuo Shoda, MD, PhD, Osamu Natsume, MD, Masami Narita, MD PhD, Yukihiro Ohya, MD, PhD
Rationale: To examine the association of maternal oral contraceptive pills (OCP) use before pregnancy with wheeze and allergic outcomes in five-year-old children in Japan.

Methods: The Tokyo-Children’s Health, Illness and Development Study (T-CHILD) is a prospective, single center, birth cohort study. A questionnaire was conducted on the mothers regarding their history and duration of OCP use. To identify wheeze and allergic outcomes in the children, the questionnaire of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) was used. Logistic regression models were applied to estimate the association of maternal OCP use with wheeze and allergic outcomes in children. Adjustments were made for maternal history of allergy, maternal education level, maternal age at pregnancy, maternal BMI, maternal smoking during pregnancy, mode of delivery, gestational age at delivery, birth weight, parity, and gender of child.

Results: OCP use was associated with ever wheeze (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12-2.41), current wheeze (aOR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.03-2.51), ever asthma (aOR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.03-2.61), and ever allergic rhinitis (aOR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.27-2.71). Compared with no prior OCP use, using OCP for more than six months statistically increased the odds of ever wheeze (P = 0.005), current wheeze (P = 0.015) and ever asthma (P = 0.04).

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that maternal OCP use has a role in the development of wheeze and allergic outcomes in children. Extended use of OCP is likely to increase the risk of wheeze and allergic outcomes.