Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID) is characterized by hypogammaglobinemia and recurrent infections. T cell abnormalities might participate in its immunopathology. The aim of this study was to analyze T cell quantity and function in patients with CVID.
Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated from whole blood by Ficoll Hypaque gradient from 14 patients with CVID and 14 age and sex matched control individuals. T cell phenotyping was performed by flow cytometry using different monoclonal antibodies. For functional studies PBMC were cultured and stimulated with polyclonal mitogens (PHA, Con A and PWD) and recall antigens (candida antigens, PPD and trychophyton) for 72 hr. Cell proliferation was measured by titrated thymidine uptake and values expressed in cpm. IFN-g, IL 10 and IL 17 production was measured in culture supernatants by ELISA.
Patients with CVID showed decreased number of CD4+ T cells when compared with healthy controls (p < 0,05). PBMC from CVID patients showed decreased proliferation indexes compared to healthy controls when cultured with PHA (p < 0,05), Con A ( p < 0,05), PWD (p < 0,05) and Trychophyton (p < 0,05). There was also significant less IL17 production in CVID cultures stimulated with PHA and PWD (p < 0,05), while no differences were detected for IL 10 and IFN g.
Patients with CVID showed reduced T cell numbers, less in vitro proliferation against mitogens and less production of IL 17. These results suggest T cell abnormalities in patients with this disease.