Methods: Children participating in a high-risk birth cohort [Childhood Origins of ASThma (COAST)] were prospectively monitored for infection with rhinovirus during scheduled visits, moderate-to-severe illnesses (MSIs), and wheezing illnesses in the first three years of life. Nasal samples collected during scheduled visits and illnesses were analyzed for respiratory viruses using multiplex PCR, including partial sequencing for RV typing.
Results: In year 1, there were higher rates of RV-C detection at scheduled visits in children with rs6967330 (p=0.02). This association waned in years 2 and 3 scheduled visits. There were higher rates of RV-C MSIs in children with rs6967330 in year 1 (p=0.02) and year 2 (p=0.04), but this effect waned in year 3. There were no significant associations with RV-A or RV-C wheezing illnesses in children with the risk allele in the first 3 years of life, and rs6967330 was not associated with RV-A infection or illness.
Conclusions: These data demonstrate that infection rates and moderate-to-severe illnesses with RV-C in children varied by CDHR3 genotype, and these effects were most pronounced in the first two years of life. These results indicate that CDHR3 specifically increases the risk for RV-C infections and illness in infancy, and suggest that this relationship could promote the subsequent development of asthma during later childhood.