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Use of a Penicillin Allergy Screening Algorithm and Penicillin Skin Testing for Transitioning Hospitalized Patients to First Line Antibiotic Therapy
Sunday, March 5, 2017: 2:30 PM
Thomas B. Murphy Ballroom 1 (Georgia World Congress Center, Building B)
Allison  Ramsey, MD FAAAAI, ,
Rationale:

Penicillin allergy is the most commonly reported antibiotic allergy. Avoidance of β-lactam antibiotics in hospitalized patients leads to use of second line therapies. The utility of a penicillin allergy screening algorithm (PASA) and subsequent penicillin skin testing (PST) in transitioning hospitalized patients from second- to first-line antibiotic therapy is described.

Methods:

Through an electronic medical record report, pharmacists identified adult inpatients with penicillin allergy receiving moxifloxacin, intravenous vancomycin, aztreonam, daptomycin, or linezolid, in which a β-lactam antibiotic was preferred. The PASA was administered to identify patients for PST.  Skin test negative patients were transitioned to first line β-lactam antibiotic therapy.

Results:

Thirty-seven patients consented to the study.  Based on the algorithm, 33 patients (89.2%) qualified for PST: 1 patient had a blocked histamine control, 1 was discharged, and 1 withdrew prior to PST. In the 30 patients undergoing PST, historical reactions included anaphylaxis (6 patients, 20%), hives (9, 30%), unknown (5, 16.7%), rash (5, 16.7%), angioedema (4, 13.3%), and shortness of breath (1, 3.3%).   Twenty-nine patients (96.7%) were skin test negative and were subsequently transitioned from therapy with aztreonam (5 patients) and/or vancomycin (26 patients) to a β-lactam antibiotic. No patients experienced an adverse reaction, and at least 23 hospital days were avoided, with a cost savings of $50,000.

Conclusions:

Our PASA and PST are a safe and cost effective multidisciplinary intervention which facilitated the transition to β-lactam antibiotics.  Our approach is unique in that it prioritizes patients based on use of second line antibiotics, and then applies an algorithm to determine eligibility for penicillin skin testing.