METHODS: Retrospective cohort analysis of the 2003-2012 Kids’ Inpatient Database (KID) of children ages 2-18 years admitted with a primary or secondary diagnosis of PIDD was performed.
RESULTS: There were 26,794 pediatric patients hospitalized with a diagnosis of a PIDD from 2003-2012. The national prevalence of all PIDDs per 100,000 was 66.6, 82.2, 97.4 and 126.8 in 2003, 2006, 2009 and 2012, respectively. The highest prevalence was in children 0-5 years of age (15,105 hospitalizations; 56%). There was no difference in prevalence between B cell defects and T cell defects. PIDDs affected all ethnic populations equally. Respiratory related diagnoses were the most common co-morbidity by organ system. Overall mortality was 1.98%. Age was inversely correlated with clinical outcome. Children 0-5 years had higher mortality (424 deaths, 79.85%), mean hospital charges ($35,480) and length of stay (LOS) (5.6 days) compared to older age cohorts.
CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of PIDDs in the hospitalized pediatric population in the United States has steadily increased over time. Younger age is associated higher mortality, hospital costs and LOS. Further study is needed to determine cost-effective management strategies to improve outcomes in infants and young children with PIDD.