Allergic rhinitis is common in children, and little is known about the association of maternal prenatal Vitamin D in non-high risk, racially diverse populations.
We studied the association between prenatal vitamin D [25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D)] and child allergic rhinitis in mother-child dyads enrolled prenatally, 2006-2011, in the racially diverse Conditions Affecting Neurocognitive Development in Early Childhood (CANDLE) cohort (Memphis, TN). We determined 2nd trimester 25(OH)D in women and allergic rhinitis (parent report of physician diagnosis and symptoms in previous 12 months) in children at 4-6 years. Associations between log transformed prenatal 25(OH)D and allergic rhinitis were evaluated in a multivariable model with interaction by maternal race and covariates including maternal asthma, education, smoking, and birth season.
Among 1091 women, 67% were African American (AA) and 58% had < high school education. Overall, 23% of children had allergic rhinitis. Median 25(OH)D levels were 25.1 and 19.2 ng/mL in white and AA women, respectively. Effect modification was detected by maternal race (p=0.024). In white women an interquartile range increase (15-27 ng/mL) in prenatal 25(OH)D was not significantly associated with child allergic rhinitis (adjusted OR 0.79, 95% CI: 0.52-1.20, p=0.26), whereas in AA women it was associated with increased likelihood of child allergic rhinitis (adjusted OR 1.40, 95% CI: 1.04-1.88, p=0.025).
Results suggest prenatal vitamin D is associated with increased risk of child allergic rhinitis in African American, but not white, dyads. More research is needed on the relationship with prenatal Vitamin D and allergic rhinitis, particularly in AA populations.